- Hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission) or through horizontal transmission (exposure to infected blood).
- Hepatitis B is also spread by needlestick injury, tattooing, piercing and exposure to infected blood and body fluids, such as saliva and menstrual, vaginal and seminal fluids.
- Transmission of the virus may also occur through the reuse of contaminated needles and syringes or sharp objects either in health care settings, in the community or among persons who inject drugs.
- Sexual transmission is more prevalent in unvaccinated persons with multiple sexual partners.
Read more about hepatitis B on the WHO website
What is Viral Hepatitis?