1. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are at risk of infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV). People who are not immune to HBV (either by natural disease or immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine) are at risk of infection with HBV, which puts them at risk of HDV infection.


2. Those who are more likely to have HBV and HDV co-infection include:

  • indigenous people
  • people who inject drugs
  • people with hepatitis C virus or HIV infection.


3. The risk of co-infection also appears to be potentially higher in:

  • recipients of haemodialysis
  • men who have sex with men
  • commercial sex workers.

Read more about hepatitis D on the WHO website here

What is Viral Hepatitis?